The 2016 Wetland Plant List

On April 18, 2016, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers published the final 2016 National Wetland Plant List (NMPL).  The NMPL is used to determine whether the hydrophytic vegetation parameter is met when conducting wetland delineations.  The list will become effective on May 1, 2016 and will be used in any wetland delineation performed after this date.

The 2016 update contains 8,092 plant species in the continental United States that occur in wetlands.  The 2016 list includes 186 changes in the plant indicator status (OBL, FACW, FAC, FACU and UPL designations) of various plant species.

The Corps has updated the interpretation of the wetland indicator ratings.  We no longer use the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service percent occurrence in wetlands (1998, Reed).

Obligate (OBL) –  Almost always occur in wetlands.

Facultative Wetland (FACW) –  Usually occur in wetlands, but may occur in non-wetlands.

Facultative (FAC) –  Occur in wetlands and non-wetlands.

Facultative Upland (FACU) –  Usually occur in non-wetlands, but may occur in wetlands.

Upland (UPL) –  Almost never occur in wetlands.

Attached as PDF files are the 2016 Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain and Eastern Mountains and Piedmont lists, which cover all of Maryland and Virginia.


The American Holly (Ilex opaca) is FAC in the coastal plain and FACU in the Piedmont.


2016 Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain Plant List:


2016 Eastern Mountains and Piedmont Plant List:


Indicator Rating Definitions: